Prospective Students

Current Graduate Students

Tim Carter
Ball State University
Dept of Biology

Dept of Biology

Timothy C. Carter, Ph.D.                
Assistant Professor
Wildlife Biology and Mammalogy

Curator for the
Ball State University
Mammalogy Collection


Educational Background

Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Ph.D. 2003

Dissertation:  Summer habitat use of roost trees by the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) in the Shawnee National Forest of southern Illinois. 82 pp.  

University of Georgia, M.S. 1998

Thesis:  The foraging ecology of three species of bats at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. 74 pp. 

 University of Georgia, B.S. 1996

General Research & Interest Areas

  • Wildlife Biology and Management. 
  • Non-game and endangered species
  • Bat ecology  

My research program has focused on non-game and endangered species. Much of my interests lie in how land management affects non-game and endangered species. I have done extensive work on the federally endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) identifying and delineating critical summer habitat.  As well as examining winter hibernation habitat.

I also work with small mammal communities. Again much of this work has focused on how changes in land-use affect these animals. Additionally, I am involved in a reintroduction project for the Illinois state-endangered eastern woodrat (Neotoma floridana)

Graduate and undergraduate students working with me have studied various aspects of bat ecology and small mammals. Persons interested in graduate research involving questions in wildlife biology may contact me. They should also view my document for Prospective Students.


Courses Currently Teaching 


For How-To Documents on Field Equipment Construction - Click here.


Recent Publications - Click Titles for PDF

Bergeson, S.M., T.C. Carter, and M.D. Whitby. 2015. Adaptive Roosting Gives Little Brown Bats an Advantage over Endangered Indiana Bats. American Midland Naturalist, 174:321-330.

Pauli, B.P, H.A. Badin, G.S. Haulton, P.A. Zollner, T.C. Carter. 2015. Landscape features associated with the roosting habitat of Indiana bats and northern long-eared bats Landscape Ecology 30: 2015-2029.

Whitby, M.D., T.C. Carter, E.R. Britzke. 2014. Evaluation of mobile acoustic techniques for bat population monitoring. Acta Chiropterlogica. 16(1):223-230.

Bergeson, S.M., T.C. Carter, and M.D. Whitby. 2013. Partitioning of foraging resources between sympatric Indiana and little brown bats. Journal of Mammalogy 94(6):1311-1320.

Poole, A.K., B.A. Novosak, A.C. Gooley, D.M. Ing, R.D. Bluett, T.C. Carter, G.A. Feldhamer, GA. 2013. Reintroduction of the Eastern Woodrat (Neotoma floridana) in Southern Illinois.  Southeastern Naturalist, 12:1-10.

Whitby, M., S. Bergeson, T. Carter, S. Rutan and R. McClanahan. 2013. The Discovery of a Reproductive Population of Eastern Small-footed bat, Myotis leibii, in Southern Illinois Using a Novel Survey Method. American Midland Naturalist 169: 229-233

Carter, T. C. and Steffen, B. J.  2010.  Converting Abandoned Mines to Suitable Hibernacula for Endangered Indiana Bats. pages:205-213 In (Vories, K. C., Caswell, A. H., and Price, T. M., eds.)  Protecting Threatened Bats At Coal Mines: A Technical Interactive Forum. Department of Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University Carbondale 249pp.

Meretsky, V. J., V. Brack JR, T. C. Carter, R. Clawson, R. R. Currie, T. A. Hemberger, C. J. Herzog, A. C. Hicks, J. A. Kath, J. R. Macgregor, R. A. King, and D. H. Good.  2010.  Digital photography improves consistency and accuracy of bat counts in hibernacula.  Journal of Wildlife Management, 74:166-173.

Carter, T. C., T. J. Sichmeller, and M. G. Hohmann.  2009. A Field- and Laboratory-based Comparison of Adhesives for Attaching Radio Transmitters to Small Insectivorous Bats.  Bat Research News 50: 81-85. Contribution 75%.

Wolff, J.M. , L. Battaglia, T.C. Carter, L.B. Rodman, E.R. Britzke, and G.A. Feldhamer.  2009. Effects of Tornado Disturbance on Bat Communities in Southern Illinois.  Northeastern Naturalist, 16:553-562.

Feldhamer, G.A., T.C. Carter, and J.O. Whitaker, Jr.  2009. Prey Consumed by Eight Species of Insectivorous Bats from Southern Illinois.  American Midland Naturalist. 162:43-51.

Feldhamer, G. A., E. M. Schauber, L. B. Rodman, and T. C. Carter.  2008.  Multiple captures of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus): evidence for social structure?  American Midland Naturalist. 160:171-177.

Carter, T. C., J. M. Menzel.  2007.  Day-roosting ecology of North American foliage-roosting bats.  Pages 61-81 In (M. J. Lacki, J. P. Hayes, and Kurta A., eds.)  Bats in Forests: Conservation and Management.  John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.  329 pp.

Carter, T. C.  2006.  Indiana Bats in the Midwest: The Importance of Hydric Habitats.  Journal of Wildlife Management 70:1185-1190.

Steffen, B. J., T. L. York Osborne, T. C. Carter, and G. A. Feldhamer.  2006.  The first record of the eastern small-footed myotis (Myotis leibii) in Illinois.  Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science, 99:87-89.

MacCarthy, K. A., T. C. Carter, B. J. Steffen, G. A. Feldhamer.  2006.  Efficacy of the mist net protocol for Indiana Bats: a video analysis.  Northeastern Naturalist, 13:25-28.

Carter, T. C and G. A. Feldhamer.  2005.  Roost trees used by maternity colonies of Indiana bats and northern myotis in southern Illinois. Forest Ecology and Management 219:259-268.

Menzel, J. M., W. M. Ford, M. A. Menzel, T. C. Carter, J. E. Gardner, J. D. Garner, J. E. Hofmann.  2005.  Summer habitat use and home-range analysis of the endangered Indiana bat. Journal of Wildlife Management 69:430-436.

Carter, T. C., M. A. Menzel, B. R. Chapman, and K. V. Miller.  2004. Partitioning of food resources by syntopic Eastern red (Lasiurus borealis), Seminole (L. seminolus), and Evening (Nycticeius humeralis) bats.  American Midland Naturalist 151:186-191.

Feldhamer, G. A., T. C. Carter, A. T. Morzillo, and E. H. Nicholson.  2003.  Use of bridges by roosting bats in southern Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 96:107-112.

Carter, T. C., M. A. Menzel, S. F. Owen, J. W. Edwards, J. M. Menzel, and W. M. Ford.  2003.  Food habits of seven bat species in the Allegheny Plateau and Ridge and Valley of West Virginia.  Northeastern Naturalist 10:83-88.

Carroll, S. K., T. C. Carter, and G. A. Feldhamer.  2002.  Placement of nets for bats: effects on perceived fauna.  Southeastern Naturalist 1:193-198.

Carter, T. C., G. A. Feldhamer and J. Kath.  2002.  Notes on summer roosting of Indiana bats.  Bat Research News 42:197-198.

Menzel, M. A. Jr., J. M. Menzel, T. C. Carter, J. O. Whitaker, Jr, and W. M. Ford. 2002. Notes on the late summer diet of male and female eastern pipistrelles (Pipistrellus subflavus) at Fort Mountain State Park, Georgia.  Georgia Journal of Science 60:170-179.