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Tim Carter
Ball State University
Dept of Biology

Dept of Biology



Emails for current graduate students can be found using the BSU Directory



Kristi Confortin. M.S. Degree- est. May 2017 Thesis: TBA - Roosting Ecology of Eastern Small Footed Bats.

Kristi is using radio telemetry to track eastern small footed bats in Southern Illinois to their roost rocks each day.
She will be examining roost characteristics and spatial distribution of roosts across the (bed-rock) landscape.









Garrett Clevinger. MS Degree- est. May 2017 Thesis: TBA -  Comparisons of survivorship and movement within a localized population 
of urban and rural White-tailed deer.

Garrett is using GPS collars to track the movements and eventual fatalities of adult White-tailed deer within the city of Bloomington, Indiana 
and its adjacent rural areas. The goal of his research is to examine potential differences in cause specific mortality, movement variation, and 
home range distribution within localized urban and rural populations.  











Jonathan Trudeau. M.S. Degree- est. May 2017 Thesis: TBA - Comparison of survivorship and movements in Urban and Rural White-tailed
deer populations in Southern Indiana.

Jonathan is using  GPS collars and radio telemetry to track the life histories of adult white-tailed deer in urban and rural deer populations in 
Southern Indiana. He is specifically interested in determining cause specific mortality in each population as well as compare home range sizes,
home range overlap, dispersal rates and distance traveled, along with determining the differences in habitat use and selection of the two
adjacent populations.  











Joc batJocelyn Karsk.  M.S. Degree – est. May 2016 – Thesis: TBA - Roosting Ecology of Northern Long-eared Bats.

Jocelyn is using radio telemetry to track northern long-eared bats to their roost trees each day.  She will be
examining the spatial distribution of the roosts across the landscape and how they are related to landscape
characteristics. She is especially interested in how silvicultural treatments impact the spatial use of these bats.







Joc happy Joc 2


KatherineKatherine Caldwell.  M.S. Degree Dec 2015 – Thesis: Bat habitat use in relation to silvicultural techniques in an Indiana experimental forest.

Katherine used high-frequency acoustic detectors to examine bat activity in relation to forest management treatments in Yellowwood and Morgan-Monroe
state forests. She was particularly interested in the extent of the “edge effect” into forests adjacent to timber harvests and activity of Myotis in these areas.
Her research contributes to the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment, a long-term, large-scale forest management study in south central Indiana.  

Katherine is now a Mammalogist for the State of North Carolina





ChadChad Williamson.  M.S. Degree – August 2016 – Thesis: White-tailed deer fawn survival and dispersal in relation to urban
versus rural habitats.

Chad’s research examines the survival and dispersal of white-tailed deer fawns in southern Indiana. He is placing radio collars
on fawns and tracking their movements to compare data from urban and rural areas. The ultimate goal is to determine what role
fawns play in the higher deer densities in urban Bloomington, IN. 

Chad is currently working on his PhD at Michigan State University.







Holly Badin.  M.S. Degree May 2014 – Thesis: Roosting Range Sizes and Habitat Selection of Northern Long-Eared Bats (Myotis septentrionalis) in an Experimental Ecosystem.

Holly’s research focused on roosting range size as well as landscape, stand, and microhabitat selection of Northern long-eared bats under differing forest harvest regimes. 
Her study site, the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment, is in the beginning years of it’s projected 100-year run of varying silviculture treatments.

Holly now Environmental Scientist for a Consulting Company.



Scott Bergeson.  M.S. Degree - May 2012 Thesis: Examining the suitability of the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) as a surrogate for the endangered Indiana bat (M. sodalis).

Scott's research focused on the use of surrogates in conservation biology.  He examined the model of using little brown bats as a surrogate for the Federally endangered Indiana bats. 
While examining their suitability in multiple aspects, his field research focused on home range and habitat use of the two species since that is the least well known aspect of comparison between the two.

Scott is currently working on his PhD at Indiana State University.





Michael Whitby.  M.S. Degree - December 2012 Thesis: Evaluating the effectiveness of mobile acoustic monitoring techniques for landscape level bat population monitoring.

Mike examined some issues associated with the national bat monitoring plan that was established in 2009.  The monitoring plan focuses on using 30 mile acoustic routes along roads
conducted 3 times each year to assess the bat fauna of a particular area.  Mike's research centered on the issue that some bat species are more frequently found in habitats that are not
commonly found along road transects.  He is primarily comparing aquatic acoustic routes with the traditional road routes and looked to see if the different methods produce
different pictures of the local bat fauna.

Mike is currently working on his PhD at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.





Abigail Schultz.  M.S. Degree - DNF Thesis: Temporal and spatial patterns of snags used by Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis).

Abby's research is focused on a long standing idea about the minimum number of snags that is needed to sustain a maternity colony of Indiana bats.  Some of the first research on
Indiana bats in the early 1990s offered recommendations about the number of potential roost trees need for a colony of Indiana bats and those suggestions have been taken as gospel
by many land managers without adequate scientific testing.  While testing this idea seems easy on the surface.  Sound scientific methodologies requires replication (in part), and in this
case that requires studying multiple colonies of bats at the same time which creates a landscape level question with landscape level logistic issues.




Stephanie Rutan.  Withdrawn Thermodynamics of Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus) and Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) Maternity Roosts.

Stephanie examined the concept of maternity colonies and why they are formed.  While there are many hypothesis why maternity colonies are formed, Stephanie was
testing the hypothesis that bat maternity colonies are formed for the thermal benefits.  She was using a combination of dataloggers and temperature sensitive telemetry
to record the temperatures inside and outside of bat houses and the body temperature of bats to better understand the how colony formation affects temperatures within a colony.




Melanie Michaels.  2011 - M.A. Degree

Melanie's research focused on examining the habitat use of Indiana bats and specifically how habitat use changes over time and across landscapes. 
Melanie was comparing the habitat use of Indiana bats studied in 2003 with habitat use of bats from that same colony in 2009.  She was also studying
bats from a colony in an agricultural dominated landscape to compare with a colony found in a forest dominated landscape.





Timothy Sichmeller.  M.S. Degree - May 2010 – Thesis: Selection of summer roosting sites based on temperature in the endangered
Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis)

Tim's research was focused on the dilemma that female bats face during the maternity season.  All temperate bats commonly use torpor
as a mechanism to conserve energy.  However, during the maternity season pregnant females that use torpor may delay fetal growth. 
Additionally, lactating females that use torpor may reduce the amount of breast milk they can produce for their dependant young. 
Tim was interested in examining how female bats balance the demands between energy conservation and development of their young.

Tim is a Bat Biologist at West Inc. (Consulting Company)